One of my favorite things to do is fish in very remote places. I love going to places where I’m unlikely to see anyone else and even better, places that few have ever been. But traveling to these places, or anyplace in the backcountry involves a certain amount of risk.
No one ever plans to get lost or to get hurt. And certainly,
nobody ever expects that a day of fishing will turn into an overnight stay in
the woods. However, no matter who you are, something can always go wrong and
when you’re in the backcountry of the mountains, there is a name for people who
are not prepared for those unforeseen occurrences when they arise… “Statistics.”
I’ve always been accused of being over prepared and some will probably roll their eyes when they read this article. But things can go bad in a hurry in the wilderness. And if they do, you can hope that someone happens by to help, or you can be prepared to deal with it yourself. And when you travel to some of the remote places I do, the chances of someone happening by are slim. Even when I’m traveling to a location where I’m more likely to see someone, I would much rather be the person prepared to provide aid than to need it.
I always wear a daypack in the backcountry, and I define the backcountry as anyplace I can’t exit and get aid fairly immediately. So, it could be five miles up a trail or it could be a deep roadside gorge that I can’t exit until I get to the other end. In addition to my fishing supplies, I always carry the following items in my backcountry kit and suggest that you do the same.
Whether in the backcountry or not, I was taught as a boy that you never go to the woods without a knife. The needs and uses for a knife in the outdoors are endless.
2) First Aid Kit
From a fall to a sting to a severe cut, you just don’t know when you’re going to hurt yourself. A first aid kit is a must and I’d recommend putting together your own rather than using the pre-made kits. Think about the most likely injuries you could suffer as well as any personal issues you may have, such as bee allergies, and pack your first aid kit with items to treat those things.
Even when you’re in an area where there are more people, if you should injure yourself in the stream or anywhere else out of sight of the trail, help may not be able to see or hear you. A whistle or other loud sounding device can signal others that you’re in distress. It can also be a tool to scare away aggressive wildlife.
4) Bear Spray
Speaking of aggressive wildlife, I always carry bear spray with me in the backcountry. While it can provide comfort and protection against aggressive bears and other wildlife, it can also be a useful weapon against undesirable people. Anyone remember the machete wielding killer on the Appalachian Trail a few years ago?
5) Topo Map
Certainly this can include GPS devices but a good old fashion paper map won’t run out of batteries. Learn how to read a topo map if you don’t already and keep one with you. I can’t tell you how many lost hikers I’ve encountered and set straight in the backcountry who didn’t have a map.
6) Fire Starting Tools
I always carry waterproof matches, a fire stick and a small amount of dry tinder in my pack. This is in case I, for whatever reason, unexpectedly must spend the night in the woods. Or maybe I take a spill in the water on a cool day and need to prevent hypothermia.
7) Emergency Space Blanket
Much like fire starting tools, this may be used for warmth and/or shelter in case of an unexpected overnight stay or as prevention/treatment for hypothermia.
8) Water Purification
I always carry water with me on a fishing trip or hike. But if it becomes an unexpected extended stay, I want a way to purify water. A LifeStraw is a simple, light, packable option.
Much like a knife, paracord has multiple uses in the
outdoors whether in the backcountry or not. It’s light, small and strong and
can be used for simple “emergencies” like replacing a broken boot lace to more
serious tasks like constructing a shelter for an unforeseen overnight.
I don’t usually carry a map on guided trips or on many solo
trips in the Smokies, only because I am so intimately familiar with those
locations. But I take one anytime I go someplace I’ve never been or have only
been to a few times. Otherwise, I never travel in the backcountry without the above-mentioned
Additionally, although I do it routinely, it’s not a very
good idea to fish the backcountry by yourself. Take a buddy and always let
someone know where you’re going to be. If you tend to go to really remote
spots, you may consider carrying some sort of GPS beacon. They allow you to
send an SOS if you get into trouble and some offer text messaging if you need
to message a potentially worried loved one when you’re running way late. It
didn’t make my list of essentials, but my wife insisted I take one on my “extreme”
“Do you ever see any bears when you fish?” It’s one of the most common questions I get. Probably the only question I get more often is, “Is that your real last name?” “Yes” to both. If you spend enough time in the Smokies, especially in the backcountry, you’re going to eventually run into a bear. In fact, Great Smoky Mountains National Park is thought to have the densest population of black bears east of the Mississippi.
Likelihood of Seeing a Bear
Other than pure chance, the number of bears you’re likely to see depends on how much time you spend in the mountains and how abundant food is. When bears have plenty to eat, they don’t roam around as much. However, when food is in short supply, such as following a drought, bears need to do more looking and that tends to take them closer to trails and roads. I typically spend about 200 days a year in the mountains and I see anywhere from 3 to 40 bears in a year.
On a recent backcountry guide trip, we saw 4 bears in one day! Seeing a bear when you’re fishing or hiking is usually a good thing. They’re pretty and they’re really cool to watch. The key to enjoying bears is knowing how to behave around them.
Concern for Bears
Many people tend to be far too afraid of bears, allowing that anxiety to disrupt what should be a peaceful day in the mountains. Or worse, their fear incites panic when they encounter a bear and they make poor choices. However, on the other end of the spectrum, you have people who do not give black bears the respect they deserve. I routinely see tourists getting far too close to bears when trying to photograph them. And I’ve had more than a few “macho” guide clients chuckle when they learn that I carry bear spray in the backcountry – “They’re just black bears.”
It’s true that black bears don’t get as big as brown bears and grizzlies, but they can still get as big as 600 pounds. It’s also true that black bears are rarely aggressive toward humans. On the list of top causes of injuries in the Smokies every year, bear attacks don’t even rank, which means that, on average, there are less than four a year. As a matter of fact, in the entire history of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, there have only been two bear attacks that resulted in human death. One of those was just last year on Hazel Creek.
So, I don’t carry bear spray out of an abundance of fear but
more as a precaution in case I run into one of those few bears who don’t know
the rules. For one thing, I’m in the backcountry far more than, well, the
average bear, so I have far more opportunities for an encounter. Additionally,
I am responsible for the safety of paying clients and I don’t take that lightly.
In any case, whether or not you decide to carry bear spray
is up to you. But I have learned over the years from talking to guide clients
and passing hikers and fishermen that most people don’t have any idea what to
do when they encounter a bear. Hopefully this article will help a little.
Black Bear Facts and Statistics
As I typed that header, I couldn’t help thinking about Dwight Schrute. Fans of The Office will understand. Before we get into managing a bear encounter, let’s get a little information on black bears, at least when it comes to the Smoky Mountains.
There are an estimated 1500 – 2000 bears in the Smoky Mountains. This works out to roughly four bears per square mile and is thought to be the densest population of black bears east of the Mississippi River.
Black bears are omnivores and they are scavengers. They feed mostly on plants, nuts and berries. Black bears also feed regularly on insects (grubs, larvae, etc.) and crustaceans (like crayfish), and they eat meat but rarely kill for it. In other words, they are unlikely to kill a deer for meat but will feed on a deer carcass if they come across it, much like a buzzard.
Some black bears turn to scavenging in towns for food, raiding dumpsters and trash cans. This behavior should never be encouraged as it increasing endangers the bear and the humans around the town.
While they may appear to be slow and clumsy, black bears are quite agile and can reach speeds of 35mph. They are also exceptionally good climbers.
Black bears in the Smokies are usually most active during the early morning and late evening and they typically mate sometime in July.
Black bears do not truly hibernate in the Smokies but in winter, do enter long periods of sleep. They may leave the den for short periods if disturbed or during brief warming spells.
Their cubs are born during this period of deep sleep, usually in late January or early February.
Females with newborn cubs usually emerge from the den in late March or early April. The cubs, which are usually born in pairs, will typically stay with the mother about a year and a half.
Video of Bear Scavenging on Stream Bank
Preparation for Travel in Bear Country
Preparing for travel in bear country mostly means packing to prevent a bad encounter but also to deal with a bad encounter should one arise. Of course, by bad encounter we’re talking about the rare occurrence when a bear behaves aggressively toward you. Any bear will behave aggressively if it feels that it or its cubs are being threatened, and understandably so. If you were at the supermarket and a stranger approached your kid in an unusual manner, you’d do the same! “Problem bears” may behave aggressively if they view you as a source of food. This behavior is rare but may occur from a bear that has been fed by people at some point or that is simply a victim of starvation.
You can significantly reduce the chances of an encounter with the latter by packing your food properly. Always have any food (including trash after you eat) you’re carrying sealed in an airtight container. Ziplock bags, for example, will do the trick or better yet, cut down on those single use plastics and carry your food in a reusable container. If you’ve ever been on a full day guided trip with me, you may recall your lunch was packed in a sealed container.
Another suggestion many experts make to prevent a surprise encounter is to put bells on your pack when you’re hiking. The idea is that you won’t accidentally startle a bear that might be upwind of you because it will hear you coming. This approach absolutely has merit but it is not one that I personally choose to take. When I visit the backcountry, I enjoy taking in ALL of nature, including the sounds. I want to hear the wind in the trees, the sound of the stream, chirping birds, etc. and not the sound of bells. Furthermore, I don’t want to scare off wildlife.
To prepare for a bad encounter, carry bear spray and a whistle. The whistle can be used to scare off an aggressive bear and also as a signaling device if you get into any other kind of trouble. Keep the bear spray in a place where it is immediately accessible. You likely won’t need it but if you do, you’re not going to have time to rummage through your pack.
Dealing with an Encounter
When you encounter a bear, stop what you’re doing and observe. Many people have heard that you should look big and make a lot of noise when you see a black bear. There is a time and place for that but it’s not every time you see a bear. If it’s far away and minding its business, you don’t want to start harassing it by yelling and waving your arms!
You want to watch and see what it’s doing. Look around to
make sure there are no cubs and if there are, that you don’t put yourself
between the adult and cubs. More often than not, your course of action will
be to do nothing. As long as you’re at a respectable distance, the bear
will likely ignore you and go about his business. Bears are cool and fun to
watch. Enjoy the show and after it moves on, go back to what you were doing.
Just always be sure to give the bear plenty of space and
make sure it has a clear path. You don’t want it to feel cornered. If you
encounter one a little too closely, keep watching it and slowly back away. As
long as its behavior doesn’t change, it doesn’t feel threatened and you don’t
need to worry.
I frequently see bears walking stream banks and turning over
rocks for food. If you see this when you’re fishing and the bear is heading your
direction, quit what you’re doing, get out of the stream and go to the opposite
bank of the bear. Typically, it will totally ignore you and go right by you. In
any situation, try not to turn your back on the bear and never run. Running can
often trigger a predatory response in a bear that was otherwise minding his own
When Bear Encounters Go Bad
If a bear changes its behavior around you, it’s time to get serious. While it may be difficult, try to remain calm and pay attention to what the bear is doing. If it is doing things like swatting the ground or making a quick step and stop (bluff charging) toward you, it is demanding space. If you have bear spray, now is the time to get it out as you slowly back away from the bear. Keep backing away until the bear quits this behavior. As mentioned above, do not run. Black bears can run 35mph! And don’t try to throw food at it. You don’t want the bear to view you as a food source.
If a black bear continues toward you, even after you attempt
to give it space, it’s time to stand your ground. Now is the time to look
bigger by stretching your arms out. If you’re with someone else, stand together
with your arms out. Act big and make a lot of noise. You’re trying to scare the
bear at this point. Blow your whistle, bang rocks together, etc.
If, after all of this, the bear is still approaching in an aggressive manner, it’s time to fight. You don’t want to play dead as is often suggested with other types of bears. Blast it with your bear spray. If you don’t have bear spray, use whatever is nearby. For example, in a stream, you are surrounded by rocks that you can throw at it. Or use a stick. Use whatever you can. Just fight.
About Bear Spray
Bear spray is essentially high intensity pepper spray that is compressed in a container resembling a small fire extinguisher. It usually comes with a holster that you can easily attach to your belt or pack. Unlike personal defense pepper spray you might carry on a keychain to spray into the face of an attacking human at close range, bear spray containers fire a cloud of chemical about 30 feet.
While I have test fired bear spray, I’ve fortunately never
had to use it for actual defense. If you do have to use it against a bear, it’s
recommended that you give a few short blasts rather than emptying the
container. If the bear continues approaching after those few short blasts,
unload it. Needless to say, after you have stopped the bear, get the hell out
of there, go home and pour yourself a stiff drink!
Note: This is a “guest column” generously provided by the good folks at Riversmith!
The solution to any problem — work, love, money, whatever — is to go fishing, and the worse the problem, the longer the trip should be. – John Gierach
While there is palpable satisfaction in catching an actual fish, fly fishing is a sport taken
up by ladies and gents that need some space to breathe and some time to think. It
certainly doesn’t hurt their chances of having a good time if the place he or she is
wetting their line is beautiful and chock full of fish.
For the best chances of having yourself an ideal trip, it requires a little thought up front.
Whether you are traveling by plane or car, the more preparation and consideration you
put into how you will get there, what gear will accompany you, and how you should pack
that gear, the more time you can spend in the moment, with the fish.
Plane Travel- Don’t Forget to Smile at TSA
Good manners, common sense, and doing a little homework goes a long way, and they
go even further in the presence of a TSA agent. Above all else, humble yourself and
remember that you are not above a TSA agent and they can make or break your trip
before it even starts. While it may say on their website what fly fishing gear they will
allow and what they will not, it will do you absolutely no good to debate or argue.
Ultimately, every agent’s discernment varies from their comrades. Know that going into
your experience at the airport and pack accordingly.
What exactly does that look like? Let’s take it item by item.
Item No. 1- Fly Rod(s)
According to the TSA website (which might not be a bad idea to visit before you pack for your trip), you may pack your fly rods as your carry-on or in your checked bag. That said, it’s best to take an extra minute or two and look up your specific airline carrier to ensure your rod fits within the size limitations they state.
They design most fly rod tubes to fall within the airline’s parameters, but double
checking will make boarding your flight all the easier. If you don’t have a fly rod tube and
don’t have time to purchase one, your safest bet is to pack your fly rod in your large
checked bag with plenty of padding. When it gets tossed about like it inevitably will, the
shock and rough treatment should make no difference to your fly rod if it’s properly
padded in your checked bag.
Item No. 2- Fly Reel(s)
Fly reels are fairly easy to get past TSA with no gripe, since none of their components
are dangerous. But there are a couple points with reels worth keeping in mind.
Save yourself a potential headache with TSA and remove the fishing line from reels.
Pack a not even opened cord of fishing line in your checked bag. Then pack the fly reel
itself in your carry-on if it fits; even better, in its original packaging or in a travel reel
case. This should easily fit in your carry-on bag, but again, proper padding is always a
Remaining Items- Flies and Other Equipment
This may sound like Captain Obvious speaking, but pack any equipment that could be
used as a weapon in your checked bag. This includes your flies, knives, forceps, etc. A
good rule of thumb is if it could hurt someone or raise a TSA eyebrow, it does not
belong in your carry-on period.
To save yourself some prime real estate, only pack what you need; in fact, there are items you need that can most likely be purchased at your destination such as sunscreen, insect repellent, personal hygiene items, etc. that are not critical in your pack.
But if you pack smart and have the room in your luggage, you may be able to bring everything you need. Start off with what is absolutely necessary in order to fish (weather appropriate clothing, your fly rod, reel, line, lures, and net). After that has all made its way into your pack, consider waders, wading boots, sunglasses, a hat, medical supplies, and so on. If it can’t catch you a fish and doesn’t fit, consider going without.
And finally, look for luggage that makes it easy to separate your fishing gear that will get
wet from the rest of your pack. Luggage made from strong, high-denier nylon material,
with durable wheels, and big enough to carry all your equipment but small enough to fit
within airline parameters will make traversing the airport a breeze.
Car Travel- Drive Like A Veteran Fishing Guide
There has to be a fair collection of snack wrappers and crushed plastic bottles. The odor should be a mix of salami and skunk. — Mike Schmidt
Alright, so maybe you don’t want your vehicle to smell like a fly fishing guide’s, but it
should definitely function like one. Although you may not be in the financial or logistical
position to purchase a vehicle tailored to your fly fishing addiction, you’ll want to pick
fishing destinations your vehicle can easily get to.
If you are in a position where you can consider a vehicle that suits your fishing needs,
bar none, it has to be off-road with a high clearance. You wouldn’t bring a knife to a
gunfight, so don’t take a Kia Soul to a switchback-filled, rocky as rocky roads get fishing
Now once you’ve got a vehicle that can get you there (and back) there’s a few
accessories definitely worth considering to keep your gear organized and protected. A
tailgater organizer is so handy and can prevent hooks from being caught on your
vehicle interior or carpet, and keep all your tiny equipment from getting lost or thrown
around the vehicle. A plastic bin that fits in the trunk or hatchback of your vehicle for
waders and wade boots is also super handy to have.
Speaking of items that will inevitably get wet, an accessory often overlooked until you’re
covered in mud and water and trying to get back into your vehicle are some weather
tech floor mats. Although you won’t be driving or riding in your wading boots or waders,
that mud-soaked gear needs somewhere to go. If you don’t have room for the plastic bin
previously mentioned, some weather tech floor mats lining the entire vehicle floor will
keep things in easy-to-clean up condition.
And finally, you can keep it greatly old-school and pop your fly rod in the bed of your truck fully assembled, or you can protect your precious rod and look into a fly rod roof rack like the Riversmith River Quiver. Not only can a River Quiver accommodate several fly rods, all varying in weights and lengths, but it’s highly shock absorbent frame and horizontal case cover and locking mechanism protect your fully assembled rod, saving you room in the cabin and providing peace of mind.
Don’t Be Such a Greenhorn… or at Least Don’t Travel Like One
You can overthink your fly fishing trip and potentially rob some fun from the experience, but you can definitely under think your trip and ruin it. For traveling with your gear, whether it’s by plane or car, pay a little attention and protect your gear. Put a little money from your wallet into accessories that will protect the investment you put into the hobby so you can pursue it more frequently.
Don’t be such a greenhorn… or at least don’t travel like one.
Safe travels and happy casting!
Guides and fly shops routinely spit out numbers from stream
gauges, often expecting you to react with pure delight or sheer terror when you
hear them. The fact is, unless you spend a lot of time on the water as an angler,
paddler or other related water bum, those numbers won’t make a lot of sense to
you. Most folks would probably just like to know whether or not they can go
fishing. But the better you understand these numbers, the better decision
you’ll be able to make on if to go, where to go and what to expect when you get
Stream Gauge Basics
There are a lot of things about reading these gauges that
are extremely simple while other aspects can get a bit complex. Many things
regarding how water flow is going to impact a stream, you just have to see for
yourself to truly understand. Then you can relate that to a gauge number and
get a pretty good idea of what that water will look like before you leave the
Before these gauge readings were posted on the internet, you had to just make your best guess and/or drive to the river to see if it was going to be too high to fish. Even now, with these numbers so easily accessible, there will sometimes be some guesswork, but at least it’s a much more educated guess!
Accessing Stream Gauge Info
The USGS has stations all over the country and there are a number of different search features to locate the gauge on or nearest the fishery in which you’re interested. Many larger rivers will have multiple stations spread out on different parts of the river. You can, of course, use a search engine to locate a specific place. Or go to usgs.gov and begin your search there. There are also a number of apps that can be downloaded. They make searching for a particular location much simpler and keep that information right in your pocket. I use an app called RiverData that gives you access to any river gauge in the country.
Stream Gauge Locations
It’s important to note that not every stream has a gauge.
So, you sometimes have to rely on the closest gauge to your fishery and assume
that both water systems received similar weather. For example, if I’m going to
fish Deep Creek in the Smokies, the nearest gauge is on the Oconaluftee. Most
of the time, Deep Creek is going to get the same or similar rain events as the
Oconaluftee… but not always.
And even when you have a gauge on the stream you’re
specifically interested in, isolated weather systems will sometimes skew the
data. For instance, Little River has a gauge located in Townsend, below the
confluence of the three prongs. So, if the water rises on any of those prongs,
it will ultimately impact the numbers on the gauge downstream in Townsend.
Usually if the gauge numbers are reading high in Townsend, the water will be up
on all three prongs as they are close enough together that they typically
receive similar weather. However, there have been occasions when there was an
isolated heavy rain on East Prong that only raised water levels on that branch.
Of course, the downstream gauge in Townsend reflected that spike but the West
Prong didn’t come up at all.
Unless you’re closely tracking every weather system, there’s
just no way to account for something like that. Stream gauges are wonderful
tools for determining water levels before you make the trip to the river. But
without multiple stream gauges spread out on different sections of every stream
in a watershed, you will often, to some extent, be making decisions based on
probability rather than 100% certainty.
Understanding Stream Gauge Tools
Not every gauge provides the same information. Some will provide a cubic feet per second (cfs) reading, some will provide a height reading (usually measured in feet), some will include a temperature reading and many have all three. A handful will get even more in the weeds and provide things like dissolved oxygen readings. For real water flow nerds, most will also allow you view charts in weekly, monthly and annual views. As long as a gauge has been in a location for forty years, I can probably look up what the flow was in that location forty years ago!
It’s also worth mentioning that different gauges may update at different intervals. Most will update at least once an hour while some may provide updates every 15 minutes. But none (that I know of) are providing data feedback in real time. Just above the selected chart will usually indicate the last time the data was updated.
This reading tells you what the flow of the stream is. If
the reading is 125cfs, it means that the flow is 125 cubic feet per second. A
lot of anglers that really know a stream rely heavily on this number. However,
the more casual angler may be easily deceived by this number as the “ideal
flow” can vary significantly from stream to stream. The broader and sometimes
flatter a streambed is, the more water flow it can comfortably accommodate.
So, 800cfs on a steep, narrow mountain stream may be a total blowout and not fishable at all. On a wider, flatter, low elevation mountain stream, 800cfs might be perfect. On a flat, 75-yard wide tailwater like the Clinch, 800cfs might be considered as a low flow. On a side note, I use generation schedules and data provided by TVA for local tailwater information.
Gauge Height Feet
This reading tells you how high the water is on the gauge
and gives you, I think, a little more “universal” reading. At least when it
comes to mountain streams, about 2’ on that gauge is nearly always going to be
close to “normal flow,” regardless of how wide or steep the stream is. For
instance, the Oconaluftee is at a normal, near perfect level when it is at 2’
but may be flowing at around 550cfs. Little River is also normal and near
perfect at 2’ but may be flowing at around 200cfs.
Again, there are a lot of variables like stream size and gradient
but typically, in most Smoky Mountain streams, 2.5’ is the high side of good.
In other words it is still wadeable in most of the usual spots but more
difficult. When you reach 3’ on the gauge, you might still find some
wadeable spots in isolated areas of small streams but pickings will be really
slim. If you don’t know the water really well, don’t mess around with this.
Beyond 3’, you’re likely just looking at a blown out river!
You won’t find this feature on every gauge, but some will have it. It’s a nice feature but you have to keep in mind that it’s reading temperature where the gauge is and water temperature will change significantly as you gain elevation on a stream. For example, the Little River gauge is located in Townsend at about 1100’ in elevation. If you’re going to fish Little River around Elkmont Campground, your elevation will be around 2300’. That coupled with more stream canopy, means your water temperature at Elkmont should be considerably cooler than the gauge reading at Townsend.
It’s not an exact science but as a general rule, you drop about 4-degrees water temperature for every 1000’ you gain in elevation. So, if the stream gauge for Little River reads 62-degrees, the water temperature at Elmont should be closer to 58-degrees. This can make an enormous difference when you’re trying to find feeding trout.
I have seen fly rods break more times and in more ways than I care to remember. However, in all of my years fishing and guiding, I am yet to see a fly rod break in its case! I’m sure someone out there has a story about it, but it is pretty safe to say that it’s rare. Most fly rods come with a case when you buy them. So, I’ve always wondered why so many anglers choose not to use them. As a matter of fact, I’m pretty sure I physically cringe when a client pulls an uncased rod out of the trunk and throws it in the back of my truck.
It’s one thing if you have a rack on or in your vehicle that is designed to carry a rod while it is strung up. But I’m talking about the strung up rod that is broken down in 2-4 pieces with the leader tangled around it. The person who does this usually justifies it with something like, “I just hate having to tie the fly back on every time.”
Forgive me for the harsh judgement but this is terrible reasoning! Aside from the fact that you’re committing your fishing life to always fishing just one beat up fly tied to what is usually a leader that is way too short and thick; you’re setting yourself up for an epic tangle to start the day and you’re just begging for a broken rod tip.
Know Your Knots
If this is you… learn to tie your knots! You really only need to know two. A perfection loop gives you a “knotless” connection between your fly line and leader. So you just need a knot for splicing tippet and a knot for tying the fly on. A double surgeons knot will take care of the former and a clinch knot will handle the latter. Both are simple to tie with a little practice. Now you can break down your rod and put it back in its tube at the end of the day. Take care of your tools and your tools will take care of you! If you don’t have a case for your rod or maybe you’re just looking for something new, here’s a breakdown of what’s available.
Aluminum and PVC Cases
As mentioned above, most fly rods will come with a case when you buy them. More often than not, this will either be an aluminum tube with a separate cloth sleeve for the rod, or it will be a PVC tube with fabric inside. If the latter, the fabric will have pre-sewn slots for each section of the rod. The cloth sleeves designed to slide into aluminum tubes will also have pre-sewn, individual slots for each rod section. In either design, you’ll want to put the rod in with the small ends of each section except the butt pointing up. The cork handle end of the butt section should point up. This allows the thick handle of the butt section to protect the smaller tip sections. And it offsets the size of the sections, allowing everything to fit in the tube better.
Though they rarely come standard with rods, you can also buy cases that allow you to store the rod with the reel still attached. This is simply for convenience and allows you to keep things assembled. You will still want to remove the fly and reel in the line before storage. I’ve seen folks try to store rods in these tubes with the rod still strung and fly attached, and it usually doesn’t end well. These tubes are available in single and double models.
If you do prefer to keep your rod outfits fully assembled and rigged up, whether for convenience or because you hate to tie knots, there are a number of long cases available that attach to the roof of your vehicle. All of them that I’ve seen lock and can be purchased to accommodate a single rod and reel or multiples. There are several brands on the market now. I have the River Quiver “four banger” model from RiverSmith and have been very happy with it.
Whatever case you choose, please just choose a case. From giant
fish to stream wipeouts to fighting off bears, there are so many better ways to
break your rod than caseless in the trunk of your car!
Getting into fly fishing can seem overwhelming. And one of
the most overwhelming aspects can be the gear. You see fly fishers on the
stream who look like members of SEAL Team 6 with the arsenal of gadgets, gear
and packs strapped to various places on their bodies. If you walk into a fly
shop, it gets even more complicated when you see the endless displays of rods,
reels, lines, tools, waders and thousands of fly patterns. Where in the world
do you start?
First, it’s important to understand that there are things
that you need to go fly fishing and there are other things that might just make
a certain task easier but aren’t essential. And there are other things that are
just fun or cool! Listed below is a list and description of necessary items to
get going in fly fishing. From there you can add all of the extra bells and
whistles you want.
The Essential Essentials
Fly Rod: Probably goes without saying but you’ll need a fly rod to get started. Rods vary in size and what exactly you need depends on where you plan to be fishing and what you plan to fish for. And prices are all over the place. You don’t need a $1000 fly rod to get into the sport, but buy the best rod you can afford. Learn more about fly rods.
Fly Reel: The reel will need to be an appropriate size to match the rod and line size you’ll be using. For most freshwater fly fishing, the reel is more of a line storage device than a fish fighting tool and it doesn’t require much of an investment. In saltwater fly fishing, the reel is probably the most valuable piece of equipment and you will want to invest a significant amount of your fly fishing budget. Learn more about fly reels.
Fly Line: The fly line is a critical piece of the equation as it is the weighted line that you will be casting. You don’t need a $100 fly line to start fly fishing but, like the rod, a good fly line can make a big difference and you should buy the best you can afford. Learn more about fly lines.
Leader: The leader is the tapered, “invisible” connection between your fly line and the fly. It provides the critical transfer of energy during the cast that allows the fly to land properly on the water. The skinny tippet end of the leader allows the fly to drift properly. Leaders are relatively inexpensive and are something that you will replace regularly. Learn more about leaders.
Tippet: When you buy a leader, it has a tippet section built in. It’s the thinnest part of the tapered leader. You will want to have spools of tippet material to rebuild or alter the leader as the tippet section gets shorter through the process of changing or breaking off flies. Learn more about tippet.
Flies: Flies are what we use as lures in fly fishing and there are A LOT of choices! Sometimes specific flies that match a hatch are required but often, a few generic fly patterns are all you need to catch fish. Get started with a basic selection of generic patterns and add to them gradually. Learn more about fly selection.
Tools & Gadgetry
Nippers: I suppose you could use your teeth but I’d recommend a pair nippers for cutting your line. Nail clippers will work in a pinch but they are made of incredibly cheap metal. You’ll start seeing nicks in the blades almost immediately and it won’t take long for them to rust. For about $10 you can get a pair of stainless nippers that will last a whole lot longer and they include a nifty “needle tool” for clearing the hook eye. Learn more about nippers.
Hemostats: I use these for everything. They’re helpful for hook extraction, crimping barbs, crimping split shot… you name it! You can use the ones your buddy that works at the hospital gave you, but those are built to be disposable. They’re fine to get started but I wouldn’t wait to long before buying some durable ones made for fly fishing. Learn more about hemostats.
Fly Box: You’re going to need something to put those flies in. An Altoid box might do the trick in the beginning but it won’t take long to outgrow that. There are a lot of different sizes and styles of fly boxes to suit any organizational and storage needs. Learn more about fly boxes.
Not Essential but Pretty Darn Useful
Strike Indicators: If you’re going to do much nymphing, particularly in slower water, you’ll want some of these. Just don’t call them bobbers. They come in a variety of styles, shapes and colors. Learn more about strike indicators.
Split Shot: Again, if you plan to do much nymphing, this will be something you want. Many nymphs have their own weight built in but some don’t. And some that do need more. These are just small weights of various sizes that can be crimped on to leader to add weight. Learn more about split shot.
Polarized Sunglasses: It’s all I can do to not put these on the essential list. Polarized glasses cut glare on the water allowing you to better see the stream bottom, your fly and sometime the fish. I never fish without them. Learn more about polarized sunglasses.
Fishing Pack or Vest: While not essential, you’re going to need some way to carry all of this stuff around with you on the stream. You can probably find something to get you by in the beginning. For me, it was my uncle’s marine shirt with the two big chest pockets. But you’ll soon want something designed for the task. Learn more about packs and vests.
You can have the best gear and be a great caster, but it
won’t mean a thing if you don’t know where to find feeding fish. We’ve covered
a lot of these things separately in other articles, but here is a quick
breakdown of the four things you really want to look for before you make that
A wild trout’s water temperature range for feeding is typically between 50 – 67 degrees. Ideal temperature is upper 50’s to low 60’s. There are plenty of exceptions that you can read about in Understanding Water Temperature, but this is a pretty good rule of thumb and should be your first consideration when trying to locate feeding trout.
If you’re not already familiar with a particular stream’s
seasonal variations and trends, a stream thermometer will be your most useful
tool. Submerge it for a minute in water that’s about 1-2 feet deep. If, for
instance, it’s July and you get a reading of 68-degrees, you should, at the
very least, seek out shadier parts of the stream. Ideally, you should try to
get to a higher elevation where it’s a little cooler. If it’s March and you get
a reading of 47-degrees, seek out sunnier places and, if possible, move to a
Part of this may require a little research on your part as
well. If you’re fishing in a low elevation stream where the water temperature
stays above 70-degrees for much of the year, there likely won’t be trout in
there at all, even during colder months. Again, this is for wild trout. Some
streams that might be too warm to support wild trout year round, could be
stocked with trout during the colder months.
Once you have located an area with a suitable water
temperature, you need to look for deeper water. We’re not talking about water
that has to be over your head, but something at least a foot or two deep. In
times when food is incredibly abundant like a heavy hatch, trout will sometimes
feed in shallower water. But in general, they will choose water with a little
more depth for more protection from predators.
Even if you have ideal water temperature and adequate depth,
trout don’t do a lot of feeding in still pools. And even when they do, they can
be very difficult to locate and catch because they’re often cruising and
feeding sporadically. A defined current is essentially a conveyor belt of food.
Most feeding trout will be near currents, watching and waiting for food to come
In currents with a slow to medium speed, trout will likely
hold right in the middle of the current and on the edges. Hard currents with a
lot of speed are a little different. A
trout won’t hold in the middle of a hard current because it requires too much
energy. Instead, the trout will be on the edges of these currents or between
currents in seams and pockets.
A trout often has a few places in an area where he likes to
hang out. He may have a favorite spot to feed and a spot under a rock where he
likes to hide when he senses danger. Sometimes, you’ll find a place that looks
perfect as far as depth and current speed go, but the stream bottom may be
nothing but flat bedrock. These areas usually don’t hold many fish because
there are few, if any, safe places. Try to look for a bottom with a lot of
rocks where fish can hide.
Significant structure like fallen trees or large boulders
often attracts the bigger fish, particularly if that spot meets all of the
other criteria mentioned above. If you find any of the characteristics
mentioned above, you’re apt to find a few feeding trout. When you locate a spot
with ALL of these characteristics, you’ll likely find the most and/or the
My grandfather always thought it was absurd that people bought water in plastic bottles. That someone would go to the store and pay for something that comes out of the kitchen sink, throw it away and do it again absolutely blew his mind. Even worse he thought, were all the plastic water bottles people didn’t throw away – the ones he regularly found at the places he hunted and fished.
No, he wasn’t an environmental activist. He was an insurance claims adjuster from a small town in the Midwest who rarely had anything at all to say about politics or activism. Instead, his perspective likely came partially from that common generational reluctance to embrace a different way of doing things. He was from the canteen generation. But his perspective was also greatly influenced by living through the Great Depression, when most folks simply couldn’t afford not to reuse everything.
My grandfather’s approach to the simple task of taking water
into the woods was born purely out of necessity and common sense. Now there’s a
whole lot of data that says he was right for reasons he knew at the time and
for reasons he couldn’t possibly have foreseen: the overflowing landfills, the
wasted oil, the wasted energy, the leaking toxins, the impact on wildlife and
the mountains of plastic waste that end up in our streams, rivers, lakes and
However, my intent is not to write a detailed article on the specific detrimental impacts of single use plastics. There are an overwhelming number of articles and studies on the topic already. If you are unfamiliar with the problem or don’t believe there is a problem, I recommend taking a little time to research.
When it comes to fishing trips, I have always used reusable
containers to carry my water. When I was a kid, I used a canteen like my
grandfather did. In more recent years, I’ve been using hydration bladders or
stainless steel water bottles. The choices today are vast from simple,
inexpensive containers to those heavy, high dollar Yetis that will keep ice for
days. As with any other piece of fly fishing gear, you just have to find what
works best for you. All are better alternatives than buying water in single use
Partly because I do consider myself an environmentalist and probably more because of the influence of my grandfather, I try to reduce waste as much as possible, whether it’s water bottles or anything else. If you have ever had one of my guide trip lunches, I provide real forks and cloth napkins not to be fancy (as some have commented), but because they are reusable. Lunches are also packed in reusable containers. There are a few things in the lunches that need to be wrapped either for practicality or sanitary reasons, but I’m proud to say the only thing that gets thrown away from one of my lunches is two pieces of cling wrap!
The fact is it would be way easier to pick up a boxed lunch full of disposable containers, paper napkins and plastic utensils and just throw it away at the end of the day. One of my least favorite things to do at the end of every day is to go home and clean all the lunch containers. Yes, it is WAY more work but to me, it is worth it.
I’m not trying to preach here or act superior because I
produce less waste. I’ve used my share of disposable containers and I have
certainly succumbed to the convenience of a single use plastic water bottle. After
all, we do live in a world of convenience and sometimes you just don’t have a
choice. But sometimes with just a little more effort, you do.
For years, while carrying my personal water in reusable containers on guide trips, I provided single use water bottles for clients. Yes, those water bottles were recycled after use but there are a lot of questions about the viability of recycling single use water bottles. I have always wanted to eliminate those plastic bottles altogether from my guide trips but thought I didn’t have a choice. It turns out I do. Much like my lunches, it will require a lot more work (and a little more expense) on my end, but like the lunches, I think it’s worth it.
Effective immediately, I will no longer be providing plastic water bottles on guided fishing trips. Instead, I am encouraging each client to provide his or her own reusable container for water. Many of my clients do this already. For anyone who does not have their own water/container, I will provide aluminum bottles of water. These bottles will be cleaned thoroughly at the end of each trip and reused for future trips.
Sure this will cost me a little more money and it will
definitely be more work, but it’s worth it. As someone once told me, “I may not
be able to make this world any better, but I sure as hell don’t have to make it
Every year, it seems every fly rod company comes out with a
new rod that is not only supposed to cast itself, but is substantially lighter
than its predecessor. As a matter of fact, the average graphite rod today is
probably about 1/3 the weight of the average graphite rod of 30 years ago. And
that difference is far more substantial when you start comparing the weight of
today’s graphite rods to the bamboo and fiberglass rods that your father or
grandfather may have used. But none of this matters if your rod is not properly
balanced by your reel.
It’s a phenomenon called “levered weight.” If you carry two
20lb. buckets of water, one in each hand, it will feel more comfortable than
carrying just one 20lb. bucket of water in one hand. One side balances out the
other. The same concept applies if you have the lightest fly rod on the market
but have a reel on it that is too heavy. It will feel heavier in your hand than
a heavier rod that is properly balanced by its reel.
When it comes to trout fishing and really, most freshwater in general, your reel does not play a very significant role. Unless, you just have to have “the best,” it is not necessary to sink a lot of money into a reel. However, just because it may not be the most important piece of equipment, doesn’t mean you shouldn’t put some consideration into things like its size. It needs to be big enough to comfortably hold the fly line and appropriate amount of backing, and it needs to balance the rod. In most cases, a rod and reel are balanced if it will self-balance when you set it on one finger positioned near the tip of the cork grip.
In the picture above, the reel is just a little too heavy for the rod. I prefer the balance point to be just a little closer to the tip of the cork. But it’s close enough to not feel uncomfortable.
Most companies will designate specific reel sizes for specific line and rod sizes. If a reel is for 4 – 6 weight lines, it not only means it has the capacity to store those line sizes, but it should balance most 4 – 6 weight rods. Of course, things like the material from which the rod is made and the length of the rod can determine if it actually falls in the “balance range” of that particular reel. If your rod is a short, super light 4-weight, you may want to bump down to the next smaller size. On the other hand, if your rod is a 6-weight bamboo, you may want to bump up to the next larger reel size.
The design of the reel seat on the rod will also be a factor. Almost all modern graphite rods have an uplocking reel seat, which positions the reel just behind the cork grip. Some bamboo rods may have a downlocking reel seat, which puts the reel almost right at the butt of the rod. The latter can help when trying to balance a heavier rod.
As reels become lighter and lighter, it has become far more difficult to find appropriate size reels to balance bamboo rods. However, one reel manufacturer, Ursus, has designed a reel that has removable brass plates on the interior. The weight of the brass plates help to balance heavier bamboo rods. When using the reel on a lighter graphite rod, the plates can be removed. Pretty cool.
In any case, no matter what rod you fish with, keep this in
mind when selecting your reel. It will greatly reduce casting fatigue and
result in much more enjoyable days on the water!
Over approximately 30 years of fly fishing, I have broken
one rod. And that was kind of a fluke. About 25 years ago, I was floating
extremely high water on the Cumberland River in Kentucky when I hung a streamer
on some submerged wood. While trying to dislodge it, the river began pushing
the boat toward a “sweeper” that likely would have capsized the boat. Since I
was in charge of steering the vessel, I had to act quickly and the rod was an
unfortunate casualty in my evasive maneuver.
Some might say I’m lucky to have such a long streak without
breaking a rod. And the fact that I’m putting this in writing all but
guarantees I’ll break one the next time I go fishing! It is certainly possible
as accidents do happen. But in the span of approximately 25 years of guiding,
I’ve seen dozens of rods broken by clients. Dozens… and that’s being
conservative! With that kind of disparity, I can’t help but think there may be
a little more than luck at play.
Yes, accidents are going to happen, but there are a number
of things I see anglers repeatedly do with their fly rods that lead to
breakage. And there are plenty of other things that may not instantly break the
rod but will stress it, leading to a seemingly inexplicable break at a later
time. So here we go… Here are the top 10 ways to prevent breaking your fly rod.
1) Store your rod in a tube.
Many rods get broken or weakened in transit. Folks toss them in the back of a truck or the trunk of a car and then set something on them, a cooler shifts, etc. I’ve never seen a rod break while it was in its tube!
2) Be gentle.
This one should be obvious, but it’s not for many. Set you rod down. Don’t toss it. Few things make me cringe more!
3) Keep the tip up.
When walking with your rod, be mindful to
keep the tip pointing up. I can’t tell you how many times I see people jab the
tip into the ground when walking on a trail. Even if it doesn’t break, you’re
potentially damaging the rod every time that happens.
4) Keep the rod ahead of you when walking through the brush.
There are many who disagree with this and
argue that the rod should be pointing behind you when traveling through the
brush. I’m sure I’ll hear from you! Fly line, leaders or rod guides can easily
get caught on branches when carrying the rod pointing behind you. Because you
don’t see it happen, you continue moving full speed ahead and pull hard against
the branch. I’ve seen guides get completely ripped off and I’ve seen rod tips
snap. I like to see where the rod is going so I can steer it around obstacles
in the woods.
5) Don’t hold the rod by its tip section.
I sometimes see this happen when people are
stringing up the rod at the beginning of the day. However, it mostly occurs on
the stream when the line gets tangled near the tip. To reach the tangle, the
fisherman will hold the rod somewhere between the tip and mid section of the
rod while the heavier butt end causes the rod to bend. Your rod is not designed
to do this and it stresses the graphite tremendously. You don’t want to hold
the rod like this in any circumstance, but it’s even worse in the stream when
the reel is attached. To reach a tangle at the tip of the rod, set the butt end
of the rod on the bank or a rock to support the weight.
6) Don’t pull against the limb with the rod when trying to pull a fly out of a tree.
If the line is wrapped in the limb, you may
end up with a broken rod tip. Instead, point the rod straight at the limb and
pull straight back. Or grab the line and pull it with your hand. You’ll not
only protect your rod tip, but you’ll be more likely to break the line near the
7) Don’t set the rod flat on the ground (or boat bottom).
When taking a break, lean the rod upward
somewhere, like against a tree. Setting the rod flat on the ground is an
invitation for you or a buddy to step on it.
8) When fighting a big fish, use the whole rod.
Many fishermen are taught to put their hand
or finger midway up the rod to apply more pressure on a large fish. Instead,
you are applying more pressure on your rod. Your fly rod is a precision tool
designed to bend in a very specific way. Holding the rod by the handle and not
applying pressure farther up the rod will ensure that your rod is bending where
it should, protecting your tippet and your rod tip from breakage on a big fish.
9) Use the recommended fly line to match your rod.
If you have a 5-weight rod, use a 5-weight line. Sure it’s okay to fudge up one size if you deem it necessary, but routinely overloading a rod with a significantly heavier line can stress the rod over time.
10) Learn how to fall.
I know, I know. This one sounds harsh, but respect the rod! I learned very early on in my fly fishing career to break my fall with my non rod hand. As a matter of fact, when I stumble in the stream, my rod hand immediately goes up!