You can have the best gear and be a great caster, but it
won’t mean a thing if you don’t know where to find feeding fish. We’ve covered
a lot of these things separately in other articles, but here is a quick
breakdown of the four things you really want to look for before you make that
A wild trout’s water temperature range for feeding is typically between 50 – 67 degrees. Ideal temperature is upper 50’s to low 60’s. There are plenty of exceptions that you can read about in Understanding Water Temperature, but this is a pretty good rule of thumb and should be your first consideration when trying to locate feeding trout.
If you’re not already familiar with a particular stream’s
seasonal variations and trends, a stream thermometer will be your most useful
tool. Submerge it for a minute in water that’s about 1-2 feet deep. If, for
instance, it’s July and you get a reading of 68-degrees, you should, at the
very least, seek out shadier parts of the stream. Ideally, you should try to
get to a higher elevation where it’s a little cooler. If it’s March and you get
a reading of 47-degrees, seek out sunnier places and, if possible, move to a
Part of this may require a little research on your part as
well. If you’re fishing in a low elevation stream where the water temperature
stays above 70-degrees for much of the year, there likely won’t be trout in
there at all, even during colder months. Again, this is for wild trout. Some
streams that might be too warm to support wild trout year round, could be
stocked with trout during the colder months.
Once you have located an area with a suitable water
temperature, you need to look for deeper water. We’re not talking about water
that has to be over your head, but something at least a foot or two deep. In
times when food is incredibly abundant like a heavy hatch, trout will sometimes
feed in shallower water. But in general, they will choose water with a little
more depth for more protection from predators.
Even if you have ideal water temperature and adequate depth,
trout don’t do a lot of feeding in still pools. And even when they do, they can
be very difficult to locate and catch because they’re often cruising and
feeding sporadically. A defined current is essentially a conveyor belt of food.
Most feeding trout will be near currents, watching and waiting for food to come
In currents with a slow to medium speed, trout will likely
hold right in the middle of the current and on the edges. Hard currents with a
lot of speed are a little different. A
trout won’t hold in the middle of a hard current because it requires too much
energy. Instead, the trout will be on the edges of these currents or between
currents in seams and pockets.
A trout often has a few places in an area where he likes to
hang out. He may have a favorite spot to feed and a spot under a rock where he
likes to hide when he senses danger. Sometimes, you’ll find a place that looks
perfect as far as depth and current speed go, but the stream bottom may be
nothing but flat bedrock. These areas usually don’t hold many fish because
there are few, if any, safe places. Try to look for a bottom with a lot of
rocks where fish can hide.
Significant structure like fallen trees or large boulders
often attracts the bigger fish, particularly if that spot meets all of the
other criteria mentioned above. If you find any of the characteristics
mentioned above, you’re apt to find a few feeding trout. When you locate a spot
with ALL of these characteristics, you’ll likely find the most and/or the
When a trout feeds on or near the surface, it creates a ring
in the water that can appear as a violent splash or a mere dimple. Recognizing
certain characteristics of this rise ring can tell you a lot about where the
fish is positioned, where his feeding lane is, his size and possibly what he’s
Lengthy chapters of vast and detailed information on this topic can be found in a number of well known fly fishing books. I recommend reading them. This article will attempt to condense that information into a useful overview. As always, these are general rules to which there are always exceptions!
Common or Simple Rise
A common rise is characterized by a quick view of the trout’s head, dorsal fin, and often “wagging” tail, followed by a boil of water. It indicates that the trout is positioned near the surface and feeding on insects on the surface or near the surface film. The insects are probably medium to large in size. Because of the increased exposure to predators, trout rarely position themselves near the surface unless there is a lot of food available. So, if you see this kind of rise, keep watching. Chances are you will see the same fish repeatedly feeding.
The surface swirl is similar to the common rise but without
the appearance of the head, fin or tail. You only see the water boil. In this
case, the fish is probably positioned within a foot or two of the surface and
is feeding on insects at least two inches below the surface. You can spend
hours casting dry flies to these kind of rises without a take, but an
unweighted nymph or wet fly fished just below the surface can be deadly.
Poking or Dimple Rise
As the name implies, this rise form appears as just a dimple on the surface and if you look carefully, you can often see just the nose of the trout penetrate the surface. This rise form also suggests the trout is positioned near the surface but likely feeding on small insects on or just below the surface. This type of rise is most often seen in slower pools and runs, slow edges of currents and eddies.
When a rise ring is more of a splash, it can mean a few things. Usually, it just indicates that the trout is positioned deeper in the water. By traveling farther up the column for food, the trout’s momentum often results in more of a splash on the surface. If the trout is positioned deeper, this was likely an opportunistic rise from a fish not necessarily focused on the surface. You may never see him come up again.
Similarly, trout feeding on insects that emerge and get off
the water quickly can display a splashier rise. Caddis flies fit this description,
so many anglers assume (sometimes incorrectly) that a splashy rise means trout
are feeding on caddis. And sometimes a splashy rise can simply be the result of
a smaller, eager trout rising recklessly.
A gulping rise is like a greatly exaggerated common rise.
The trout’s mouth is wide open and his entire backside breaks the surface,
followed by an often audible “gulp.” You’re likely to see this type of rise
during very heavy hatches when there are frequently multiple bugs very close
together on the surface. The trout may eat as many as six bugs in one rise. If
you’re seeing this, you’re at the right place at the right time. Try to match
what you see on the water and don’t get your leader in a big tangle!
A jumping rise is when the trout completely clears the water, sometimes by a few feet! This could mean the fish is feeding on bugs in the air just above the surface, or possibly something large like a mouse or even baitfish. In any case, a jumping rise suggests a brief moment of opportunity and not a steadily feeding trout. I don’t recall ever standing in a pool and seeing dozens of trout routinely jumping out of the water. Most experienced anglers recognize the jumping rise as fool’s gold, shake their heads and move on.
Where is the trout?
As mentioned above, certain types of rise rings can suggest
how deep the trout may be. However, there are other things to consider when
determining where in the stream that trout is positioned.
First and foremost, when a trout rises in a stream, he is
going to drift back during the process, then return to his original position. So
the trout is actually positioned upstream of where you saw him rise. If he is
holding near the surface, his position may only be a few inches upstream of the
rise. If he’s holding in deeper water, his position may be several feet
upstream of the rise.
When a trout rises, you’re also going to see a “push” of
water, like a little wave. That wave usually pushes upstream. But if the wave
pushes to one side or another, it indicates that the trout came over to feed.
So, he may be holding in one lane and feeding in another.
There’s a lot to this, I know. The best advice I can offer
is when you see a trout rise, don’t immediately cast a dry fly to that spot.
Think about what the rise looked like and stop and look for others. Identifying
rise rings may not give you all the answers, but it will give you a great place
People are telling me all the time that they don’t fly fish very often because they don’t have anyplace to go. I know as well as anyone that there are an endless number of things that keep us from fishing as often as we’d like, but not having a place to go should never be one. While you may not have a world-class trout stream in your backyard, or even in your state, there are plenty of other alternatives. You may just have to get a little creative.
For instance, almost every city has some sort of park or
green space with a pond. These can be productive little fisheries, typically
containing bass, carp, catfish and some sort of variation(s) of sunfish. They
are a lot of fun to fish and at the very least, they will keep your casting
skills and fishing instincts sharp between fly fishing vacations.
If you’re really lucky, you’ll find a friend who has a farm
pond. These provide all of the same benefits as those city ponds but without
all of the people. I had access to one when I lived in Kentucky that I fished
three or four times a week. Sunfish like bluegill will readily take a fly and
fight as hard as any fish I know. And a big bass boiling on your surface bug at
dusk is a tough thing to beat.
It helps to know what fish are in the pond when deciding what gear to use. You can effectively fish for bluegill with the same outfit you use for trout. A number of small to medium topwater terrestrials will work well. Small popping bugs are a good choice, too. They’ll eat trout flies but they’ll tear them up in a hurry. Therefore, I’d recommend more durable foam or hard-body flies.
As exciting as it is to catch those bluegill up top, I often catch the biggest ones below the surface. Wooly Buggers are productive, as are a large variety of rubber-leg nymphs. However, if you want to get a little more specific about imitating their food source, try crayfish patterns and damsel and dragonfly nymphs. They tend to be attracted to brighter colors. An old fashion Green Weenie has been one of my favorite subsurface flies for bluegill. As a matter of fact, fishing a Green Weenie as a dropper off a popping bug can be very productive.
Bass will eat many of the same flies as mentioned above, but big bass are often looking for a little more of a mouthful. A variety of streamer patterns can take bass in ponds and are always a good choice. But I love getting them on the surface when I can. Large hard-body poppers and sliders and spun deer hair bugs are a blast to fish with. However, these larger flies are very difficult to cast with a light trout outfit. If you do much of this type of fly fishing, I’d recommend picking up an 8-weight.
When fishing ponds, look for structure like rock piles and tree stumps. Also, these fish like the edges of things. Cast to shadow edges and the edges of shallow and deep water. In addition, during summer months, expect better fishing early and late in the day.
There are few things more exciting than watching a bass follow and explode on a well presented popping bug! Check out this video from the folks at The New Fly Fisher for some great tips on how to fish them.
For beginners, the leader and tippet represent one of the most misunderstood, or unrealized, components of critical fly fishing gear. Many don’t understand the relationship between the tippet and leader or tippet and fly, while others simply don’t understand what the difference is between the leader and tippet. And while intermediate anglers may have a working knowledge of how the tippet relates to the fly, few take the time to contemplate how the right overall leader design can contribute to their success on the water.
To better understand leader design, let’s start from the beginning and define what the leader is. In simple terms, the leader is the monofilament connection between the heavier plastic fly line and the fly. While it varies in length, the leader typically measures between 7 1/2′ and 9’ and has two primary purposes: To allow for a less visible connection from fly to line and to transfer energy during the fly cast. It tapers from a thick butt section that attaches to the fly line, down to a very fine section that attaches to the fly. The finest section that attaches to the fly is referred to as the tippet.
So, the tippet is the piece
attached to the fly and its appropriate size is determined by what size fly you’re
fishing and how you’re fishing that fly.
At least those are the primary reasons.
Other factors such as water level, water speed, and clarity can also
contribute to that decision. Smaller
tippet sizes are not only less visible to the fish, they offer less resistance
in the water, allowing for such benefits as less drag and/or faster sink
rates. Of course, smaller tippets are
not as strong, but when dead-drifting dry flies or nymphs, the fish is
typically “sipping” the passing fly, not ambushing it, so it is not often an
aggressive strike that will snap the line.
Rather, you are lifting the rod and tightening the line somewhat
smoothly, and then all of the shock absorbing properties of your rod come into
play to, when used properly, help protect that fine tippet and keep it from
However, when fishing a streamer
fly, you are usually stripping the fly to suggest the movement of a wounded or
fleeing baitfish, crayfish, etc. This
will most often provoke a more violent strike from the fish, and too light a tippet
will often snap under such a jolt. Since
you are imparting movement on these flies anyway and a dead drift is not
desired, a heavier tippet will better move the fly and better withstand the
more aggressive strike.
In essence, you want the tippet to balance with the fly for a more efficient cast and drift. For this reason, tippets are sized primarily by their diameter, but also have pound test ratings like spin fishermen may be more accustomed. Those details are all given in the fine print on a tippet spool or leader package but the most obvious marking is a single number followed by an “x” – 4x, 1x, 6x, etc.
It’s a strange system that can be confusing at first, but it relates directly to the diameter of the tippet, so 6x does not mean 6 pound test. Rather it all corresponds to the base measurement of 0x tippet, which is .011”. If I subtract the diameter of my tippet from this base of .011” I get the appropriate “x” designation and vice versa. In other words, if I have tippet that is .005”, 11 – 5 = 6, or 6x. On the other hand if I subtract the “x” number from .011”, it gives me the actual diameter. For 3x, 11 – 3 = 7, or .007”. I know. Wouldn’t you think there’d be a simpler system?
What you should notice is that the bigger the number, the smaller the tippet. So, 6x is smaller than 3x. Fly (hook) sizes work the same way. A size #18 fly is considerably smaller than a #4 fly. But if you know the size of your fly, there is a pretty simple formula to determine the perfect tippet size to match it. Take the size of the fly and divide by 3. As example, for a size #12 fly, the perfect tippet size is a 4x. Who knew there would be so much math in fly fishing?
It doesn’t need to be this scientific, but using this formula will give you a good baseline in determining a tippet size that will balance with your fly size. You can always fudge up and down as needed. Just keep in mind that when using the above formula, the more you stray to the small side of ideal, the more difficult it will be to turn the fly over with a cast and there’s a better chance of snapping the fly off. The more you stray to big the big side of ideal, the more visible your tippet will be and the more it will negatively impact natural drift.
Without trying to complicate
matters too much, the length of the tippet will also impact things like how
freely the fly drifts. For example, if
you’re trying to dead-drift a size #14 dry fly, you will likely be able to
better achieve a drag-free drift with a 5x tippet that is 20” long than with a
6x tippet that is 10” long. Conversely,
if you are trying to impart movement on a streamer, a 4x tippet that is 10”
long will provide much more control and immediate movement than a 3x tippet
that is 20” long.
All of this is a piece to a
bigger part which is the leader, and a lot of people don’t understand the
difference in the two. Tippet is just a
part of what makes up a leader just like tires are part of what makes up a car. If you merely tied 9’ of straight tippet to
the fly line, you would certainly be able to execute good drifts but you would
have an extremely difficult time casting the fly where you wanted to and would
regularly experience the fly and tippet landing in a pile, just inches from the
Therefore, the leader is tapered and consists of three parts: The butt, the taper, and the tippet. We already know what the tippet does. The thicker butt section turns the leader over with the rest of the cast, which helps eliminate piling. The taper section essentially dampens the energy of the fly cast, allowing the fly and tippet to land softly on the water.
When you buy a tapered leader at
a fly shop, it is usually knotless. They
achieve the taper by running the nylon material through a machine. On the package, it will indicate the leader’s
overall length and its tippet size. So it
might indicate that it is a 9’ 5x leader.
In fine print, you can also see the exact diameters of the butt and
tippet as well as the pound test. It has
tippet built in and is ready to go right out of the package. So what’s with the spools of tippet?
Tippet material can also be purchased on a spool with a number designation as described earlier – 3x, 4x, 5x, etc. This is purely straight tippet with no taper and its primary purpose is to rebuild or alter your leader. When you wear out the tires on your car, you can replace them without having to replace the entire car, and it’s the same with a leader and tippet. Through the course of a day, the tippet on your leader will get gradually shorter as you change flies. Or it may quickly get dramatically shorter if you hang up in a tree or two. What started out as a 9’ 5x leader is no longer 9’ and no longer 5x.
Rather than going to the trouble and expense of changing the entire leader when this happens, you can simply pull an appropriate length of 5x tippet off the spool, tie it to the leader, and you’re back in business. Over time, you’ll cut back so far into the taper that you eventually have to change the leader, but by rebuilding with tippet, you can significantly extend the life of your leader.
As mentioned, you can also use tippet material to alter your leader. You may be using a 9’ 6x leader and want to add an additional few feet of 6x for a better drift, making it a 12’ 6x leader. Or you may be changing flies that vary dramatically in size and style. For example, you might be stripping a #6 Wooly Bugger on a 7 ½’ 3x leader when a hatch of #16 Sulfurs starts to come off. Instead of changing your entire leader, you can simply add a couple of feet of 6x tippet and you have a 9 ½’ 6x leader. Just be sure you’re adding the same size or smaller. Adding a bigger piece to a smaller piece will not only create a weak link above the final section of tippet, it will also create an undesired hinging effect in the leader.
I sometimes tie my leaders rather than buy them from a fly shop. This is done by knotting together different diameters of monofilament to achieve a taper. There are established formulas you can use for this, but through the experience of trial and error, I developed my own formulas that best suit my needs. While I have a lot of specialty leaders, my go-to, everyday trout leaders are all tied ahead of time in a length of 7 ½’ to a tippet size of 3x. Since I’m rarely fishing a tippet size bigger than 3x for trout, this allows me the flexibility to add the final piece of tippet on the stream to match the fly and situation. If I’m going to fish a #14 Parachute Adams, for example, I’ll add a 2’ section of 5x and I’m ready to go.
I first started tying my own leaders when I was on the limited budget of a college student because I realized I could pay $3.50 for a leader or I could make them for about 30 cents each. Over the years, I continued making my own because I prefer them and like being able to design them for my needs. For instance, I find the commercial trout leaders to have too big of a butt section and I don’t like the way they turn over or straighten out. By using a thinner diameter butt and a different type of monofilament for the butt and taper sections, I get a leader that turns over and lays out beautifully. I also like having a few knots throughout the leader as locations to place split shot and strike indicators without them sliding down the line.
I have a variety of other specialized leaders for specific situations. My bass leaders have thicker butt sections to turn over large flies. I have hatch leaders that are long and thin, designed to achieve perfect drifts over wary trout. And I have shorter, small stream leaders for punching flies under tree limbs in extra tight conditions. I also make short leaders designed to fish on sink tip lines when streamer fishing big water.
These are all things to take into
consideration when making your own leaders or even when you buy them at the fly
shop. Understanding the basics like
length and tippet size will inevitably make a difference in your success on the
stream. Better understanding how the
butt and taper figure into the equation will give you vital tools to begin
catching fish that other anglers can’t!
In the general population of humans, you regularly find two
extreme views when those humans are contemplating two similar items that are
priced significantly different. One perspective reasons that the two items are
so similar that there is no way the more expensive item could be that much
better. The other perspective assumes that because an item is more expensive,
it must be better. When it comes to
choosing fluorocarbon or nylon fishing line, you can bet both of those assumptions
are regularly made. And both of those assumptions are very wrong.
Fluorocarbon began gaining popularity as a material for fishing line in the early 2000’s. It was billed as invisible and came with a cost nearly three times that of its nylon counterpart. That pricing disparity is still present today. For example, a 30-meter spool of Orvis nylon tippet costs $4.95. A 30-meter spool of Orvis fluorocarbon tippet costs $14.95. That’s a pretty big difference! But is fluorocarbon that much better?
First, it’s important to understand that the higher price of
fluorocarbon is more a result of its manufacturing process than it is its
fishing value. With that said, it does have some significant advantages over
nylon, but it has a few disadvantages too.
Where you’re fishing, what you’re fishing with and what you’re trying to
accomplish should ultimately determine which material will best suit your
needs. Below is a categorical contrast
between fluorocarbon and nylon to help you decide.
When you compare nylon and fluorocarbon of the same diameter, it will vary a little from brand to brand, but fluorocarbon nearly always has a higher breaking strength. And fluorocarbon is a harder material so it is significantly more abrasion resistant.
The light refractive index of fluorocarbon is very similar to that of fresh water. For this reason, it is far less visible in the water than nylon. Do you want to see for yourself? Take a piece of 5X nylon tippet and a piece of 5X fluorocarbon tippet and dip them in a glass of water.
Fluorocarbon is denser than water, which means it sinks. That’s a good thing if you’re trying to drift a nymph near the bottom. It’s not a good thing if you’re trying to drift a dry fly on the surface. Nylon suspends on the water, making it a far better choice when fishing dry flies.
Nylon is far suppler than fluorocarbon, giving it a big edge when it comes to knots. Because fluorocarbon is stiffer, the knot often doesn’t seat properly. Since the knot is always the weakest link in your set-up, this can sometimes offset the superior breaking strength of fluorocarbon. When tying knots with fluorocarbon, take your time and use extra care to ensure that your knots seat well.
I personally use both of these materials, depending mostly on where I’m fishing. In the Smokies, I fish a lot of dry flies. And even when I’m nymph fishing, it’s usually in fast, broken water where line visibility is just not an issue. For those reasons, I almost exclusively use nylon. Fluorocarbon just doesn’t seem to provide any real advantage.
However, on many tailwaters like the Clinch, most of the
runs are very clear, unbroken and slow moving. Therefore, line visibility can
be a major factor. Additionally, I am fishing with nymphs probably 90% of the
time on rivers like the Clinch. Other than the handful of times I’m using a dry
fly, you can bet I have fluorocarbon tippet tied to my fly on the tailwaters.
What I do not use, however, are fluorocarbon leaders. Even when I’m nymphing, I still need to control the depth of the fly and I don’t want the entire leader to sink. On the Clinch, I’m usually only fishing a couple of feet deep. So, I prefer to use a traditional nylon leader with the appropriate amount of fluorocarbon tippet attached to the end.
Another situation when I routinely use fluorocarbon is when
I’m sight fishing for carp on mud flats. The water on these flats is usually
slightly stained so tippet visibility is not a great concern. But I’m hooking a
commonly 5 to 20-pound fish in about a foot of water. That fish is inevitably
going to run me over rocks and chunks of wood while I fight him and I like
having the superior abrasion resistance of fluorocarbon to get him landed.
In conclusion, don’t let price dictate your choice one way
or another. Think about the place you’re going to be fishing. Consider the
methods you’ll be using. Weigh these things in your mind and choose the best
tool for the job!
Most of the time when trout fishing with dry flies or nymphs, you try to achieve a drag-free drift. This is also known as a dead drift. Essentially, what this means is you try to make your fly drift at the same speed as the current. That would be simple if the fly was drifting independently down the river. But it’s not. It’s attached to your line. Consequently, line management is a vital skill when it comes to fly fishing success and mending line is a big part of that skill set.
If your leader, or especially your fly line, is in a different current speed than the fly, it will pull or stop the fly when the line tightens. The term we use for this is drag. If your fly is dragging, you won’t catch many trout because it doesn’t look natural. Not only will the trout typically refuse to eat your fly when it has drag, they will often spook. This is especially true when you repeatedly drag a fly over a fish.
When you’re fishing small creeks and/or pocket water, you
can often get closer to the fish because the broken currents help conceal you.
In those instances, you can usually prevent drag by just keeping most of the
line off the water. The less line on the water, the less there is to pull the
But in slower pools or in bigger, deeper water, you may not be able to get as close to the fish. This forces you to make longer casts. As a result, you’ll have more line on the water. The more line you have on the water, the more currents you’ll have pulling it at different speeds.
When possible, I like to cast mostly upstream when I’m fishing bigger water. This allows me to stay behind the fish and it puts my fly and line more in the same speed of current. When the fly and line are in the same current speed, line management is much simpler. You mainly just have to strip the slack in as it drift back to you.
However, sometimes a particular run won’t allow for a
practical upstream cast. It could be that the depth of the water won’t allow
you to get in the proper position. Or maybe it’s a slick with really spooky
fish and you’re concerned about casting your line across them. You may decide
to get above them and cast downstream.
You have to be careful with this approach because you’re
moving into their direct line of sight, and anything you stir up while wading
will drift down to them. Excessive debris or a big mud cloud will send them
running. The other challenge casting downstream is the drift.
If you make a straight, fully extended cast downstream, your
fly will start to drag almost immediately because the tight line will prevent
the fly from going anywhere. It just drags in the water. I see a lot of people
try to feed line at this point. But if the line is tight from the start, you’re
just feeding a dragging fly. The trick is to land your cast with slack in the
line. Using something like a pile cast will allow the line to land with little
s-curves in it. You’ll be able to achieve a good dead drift while the s-curves
straighten out. And if you want it to drift farther, feed line while you have
those s-curves to get a nice, long drag-free drift.
The big challenge is when you have to make a longer cast
across the river. It’s something I avoid if I can, but often, especially on
large rivers, you have no choice. Casting across the river will almost always
put your line and fly in different current speeds. And the longer the cast, the
more different current speeds your likely to find.
So, let’s say you have a nice, slow current on the other side of a wide run. There’s a fast current between you and the slow current. When you cast your fly into the slow current, your line will lay across the fast the current. Consequently, the fast current pulls the line, the line pulls the fly and you have drag. This is a scenario when you need to mend line.
Mending line means that I am going to manipulate the line in
such a way that I put it upstream of the fly. By the time the faster current
moves the line past the fly, the fly has had an opportunity to naturally drift
through the target area. You can make this mend during the cast with what’s
called a reach cast. This is known as an aerial mend. Or you can make the mend
after the cast has landed by using the rod to flip the belly of the line
upstream. Sometimes, longer casts or longer drifts may require you to do both.
Longer drifts may also require you to make multiple mends.
Let’s pose a similar scenario, but this time you’re casting across a slower current and the fly is landing in a faster current. Consequently, the fly will move ahead of the line, tighten and swing (drag) out of the drift lane. In this situation, you want the line downstream of the fly to give the fly time to drift before it overtakes the line. You would use a downstream mend. Like before, this could be achieved with a reach cast and/or by flipping the line downstream after it’s on the water.
Mending is not easy and requires some practice because a lot of it has to do with anticipation and timing. If you wait until the fly starts to drag before you mend, you’ll move the fly out of the drift lane. You need to anticipate that the fly will drag and make your mend before, while you still have slack. This will disrupt the fly’s drift very little, if at all. Again, it will just take some practice.
The other big key is how you mend the line. I see a lot of people keep the rod on a level plane and make a side-to-side motion to mend the line. As a result, the line pulls through the water and drags the fly. Instead, point your rod down and toward the line you want to move and make a sweeping, semi-circle motion to move the line. The idea is to essentially pick the line up and place it in a different position… without moving the fly.
How much line you have to move will determine how big of a semi-circle you make. For instance, a big mend with a short line will likely pick the line and the fly up off the water. You don’t want that. A small mend with a long line likely won’t pick up the entire line belly, and you’ll still have drag.
As I mentioned before, it will take some practice. But it is an essential skill when drifting dry flies or nymphs to trout, especially on bigger water. Keep messing with it and before you know it, it will be second nature.
In the wake of our recent heat wave and drought conditions in East Tennessee, I’ve been hearing the same question that always surfaces after a severe weather event…. the same questions that came up after out flooding in February 2019. What does this do to the trout? It depends. It depends on the fishery and it depends on the fish.
First, let me clarify that what I’m going to talk about here
is severe conditions. For instance, a few hot days and a little bit of low
water does not constitute drought. Those conditions have to persist over a longer
period of time. Similarly, a few days of high water doesn’t equal severe
flooding. What we’ve had this February (2019) is severe flooding.
In general, when you get severe conditions as described above, you’re going to lose some fish. A major drought is harmful to all trout but tends to impact the bigger fish. Low, hot water depletes oxygen and bigger fish require more oxygen. A major flooding event will have the greatest impact on younger, smaller trout because they don’t know where to go. Stocked trout are also very vulnerable to high water events for the same reason young wild trout are. They just don’t know what to do.
Nearly 20 years ago, we had a major flood and were catching large brown trout around the picnic tables at Metcalf Bottoms. However, I should point out that it wasn’t a guide trip. Rather, it was a group of very experienced Smoky Mountain trout fishermen who all knew the area VERY well. In other words, don’t try this at home! But the point is, the bigger, older wild fish knew where to go to get out of the heavy currents. In that case, it was under a normally dry picnic table!
So, you are absolutely going to lose some fish, maybe a lot,
when these sorts of things happen. For some fisheries, it can be devastating.
In a small, stocked stream, you may have some really crappy fishing until they
stock again. For the Smokies, it tends to be a good thing in the long run.
As I’ve discussed before, the streams in the Smokies are
very healthy as far as fish populations, but they are nutrient poor. Nutrient
poor streams have a far less dense population of aquatic insects. When you have
trout streams with very healthy fish populations but an inadequate food supply,
you end up with a lot of small fish. So, when you get a major drought or
flooding event that “thins the herd,” there is more food for the survivors and
they get bigger. In the Smokies, this is
especially true for the rainbows and brook trout.
Years ago, we had a major drought in the Smokies. Prior to the drought, we averaged 4000 fish per mile. Following the drought, the number dropped to an average of 2000 fish per mile. Half of the fish were gone! Local fishermen learned about this and started pulling their hair out thinking fishing in the Smokies was going to be terrible.
Instead, in the year or two after the drought, they found
that they still caught about the same number of fish they always did, but the
fish averaged an inch or two bigger. After all, you’re only going to catch so
many in a pool before you spook it. So, you may only catch six fish out of a
pool whether it has fifty fish in it or one hundred.
The impact drought has on fish size is not usually apparent
for a year or two. But the impact that floods have on fish size are often more
immediate. You tend to find noticeable differences that same year and
significant differences the following year.
In other words, if you fish the Smokies this year and next
year, don’t be surprised if the rainbows you catch aren’t a little bigger!
Warning! This article contains terrible illustrations!
Several years ago, I was fishing a stream in the Smokies that I probably know better than any other. It was an early spring day and the water temperature was marginal at around 50-degrees, and the water level was a little high because of recent rainfall. I’d been fishing for two hours and hadn’t even had a strike. I knew it wasn’t a dry fly kind of day. Therefore, I continued to switch nymph patterns, trying to find something that would fool one trout.
Eventually, I decided to stick with one fly pattern, a Pick Pocket, that I had a lot of faith in and to begin altering the way I fished it. Since it was an un-weighted wet fly, I already had one split shot about 8” above it. I began swinging the fly a little more, but the result was the same. Next, I added a second split shot and fished with a mix of swing and dead drift techniques. Nothing. Finally, I added a third split shot and hooked a fish on my second cast. I proceeded to catch another 30 fish or so over the next couple of hours.
I should have known better but we all seem to get too caught
up in fly patterns and lose sight of other important factors like drift and
depth. Well, I had been fishing good drifts all day, but these fish were
hugging the bottom. My fly was not getting, or at least staying, down in their feeding zone.
Do you use split shot when you’re nymphing? There are
definitely times when you need to. One of the best nymph fishermen I have ever
fished with is Joe Humphreys. It is excruciating to watch him fish because
every time he moves to a different spot, he adjusts the amount of weight on his
line! But he often catches fish that others don’t because of those adjustments!
Being willing to add or remove split shot to your line is the first step. Knowing where and how to place those weights is the next. For instance, if you put three split shot right next to an already heavily weighted fly, you may have a hard time keeping it off the bottom. So, you have to figure a lot of things, like how heavy your fly is, how deep the water is and how fast the water is. Just the weight of the fly may be all you need to get the nymph near the bottom in slow water, but faster currents may move that fly all over the place. Extra weight can be used not only to get the fly deeper, but also to slow the drift and keep things where they should be.
Shot placement is tricky in places like the Smokies where depth and current speed can vary significantly, even in the same run or pocket. Short casts and good line control can significantly help combat this. Strategic split shot placement can also make a big difference.
The closer you put the additional weight to the fly, the more you’re going to put the fly on the bottom. As a result, you’ll probably hang up more. But if you put a concentrated amount of weight on a section of leader above the fly, that portion of leader will be what drifts deepest, and the fly will ride above it. The farther the split shot is above the fly, the farther off the bottom the fly will drift.
Of course, there are variables like how heavy the fly is and
how much split shot you use. Sometimes you just have to play with it a little
bit. When you get as good as Joe Humphreys, you can make those calculations in
your head and adjust perfectly for each new spot you fish. Here are a few
examples of how you might want to adjust your setup.
The Clinch River often has long, slow slicks that maintain fairly consistent depths. Consequently, the weight of the fly alone should be sufficient to get and keep the fly where I want it. In a 6’ deep plunge pool in the Smokies, I’m going to need a lot of weight to get my fly deep and keep it there because of the water depth and turbulence. I’ll likely use a heavily weighted fly plus a few pieces of split shot placed near the fly. But fishing pocket water in the Smokies, the depth in one pocket probably varies from 12-24”, with a lot of fast currents. Here, I would probably use a lightly weighted (or un-weighted) nymph with one or two split shot placed 6-8” above the fly. This will keep everything down but allow the fly to drift just off the bottom where it won’t hang up as much.
There is another method that some anglers use where a
separate piece of tippet is added to the leader or to the back of the fly. The
desired number of split shot are then added to that piece of tippet, allowing
the fly to remain above the weight. It works, but I find that split shot
hanging on a loose, vertical line like that have a greater tendency to get hung
up and pulled off on rocks. As with most things, you sometimes have to play
with a few methods and figure out what works best for you.
There are, of course, different sizes of split shot and what
size you use can certainly determine how many you need to use. I typically use
small to medium size shot because it gives me more flexibility and versatility to
add or remove as needed.
In any case, if you are only nymphing with a weighted fly
under a strike indicator, you are just scratching the surface of nymphing. I
encourage you to experiment with different amounts of weight and different
weight placements. You’ll probably start catching a few more fish… and maybe a
few bigger ones, too!
I almost always fish with two flies when I’m trout fishing. There are just so many advantages to it. Beside the obvious advantage of potentially offering two fly choices to the trout, it provides you the opportunity to simultaneously present a fly in two different feeding columns. Below, I’m going to talk about some of those strategies. And I’ll show a few different ways to rig a dropper system. As a bonus, you get to enjoy some of my horrific artwork!
Dry Fly / Dropper
This is the two-fly method with which many fly fishermen are most familiar. It seems that even less experienced fishermen will tell you this is how their guide rigged them up when they were fishing out west during hopper season. When you rig like this, you are typically tying on a larger, or at least more visible, dry fly and attaching a smaller nymph off the back of that dry fly. You’re covering the top of the water with the dry fly and you’re covering usually the middle water column (sometimes the bottom) with the nymph. The dry fly serves as sort of an edible strike indicator for the nymph.
I typically rig this by tying my dry fly directly to the main leader and tippet. I’ll then take probably 18”-24” of tippet material and tie one end to the nymph. The other end attaches to the bend of the hook on the dry fly. There are certainly a lot of variables, such as water depth or where you think the fish might be feeding, that determine how far apart you put the two flies. The amount mentioned above is a pretty good “default setting.” I like to use a clinch knot to connect to the bend of the hook. But whatever knot you usually use to tie a fly on should work fine.
You want to make sure that the flies you select for this set-up compliment each other. They should also be appropriate for the type of water you’re fishing. For example, a small parachute dry fly may not support the weight of a large, heavily weighted nymph. Parachute type patterns will easily support the weight of smaller, lighter nymphs, particularly in slower water. So, a #14 Parachute Adams with a #18 Zebra Midge dropper would be great for a tailwater. And it will work on a slower run or pool in the mountains. But a #14 Parachute Adams with a #8 weighted Tellico nymph, fished in faster water is going to be trouble. Heavily hackled, bushy dry flies or foam dry flies are better choices when fishing in faster water or with heavier nymphs.
With that in mind, know that this method may not be suitable for every situation. For instance, if you need to get a nymph deep, particularly in a faster run, you’re going to need a lot of weight. Using a dry fly–dropper rig is not going to be effective. You’re better off using traditional nymphing techniques for that. But for fishing hatch scenarios where fish are actively feeding on and just below the surface, or for fishing to opportunistic feeders in shallower pocket water, it’s pretty tough to beat.
I also like to fish this same rig with two dry fly flies. On occasion, I’ve found myself in a situation where I have trouble seeing my dry fly. This is usually when trying to imitate something small or dark like a midge, Trico, or BWO. In those situations, I’ll often tie on a larger, more visible dry fly with the smaller, darker dry fly tied about 18” off the back. Sometimes, having the more visible fly as reference allows me to actually see the smaller fly. But if I still can’t see the smaller one, I know to set the hook if I see a rise anywhere within 18” of the visible fly.
Two Nymphs or Wet Flies
Just like the dry fly-dropper rig above, fishing with two nymphs or wets allows you to cover two different feeding columns. Only now, you’re typically covering the middle column and the bottom. I think another advantage with a two nymph rig is they tend to balance each other out and drift better.
There are a few different ways to rig for this and there are numerous strategies for fly selection and placement. If I have a nymph pattern that the fish are really after, I will sometimes fish two of the exact same fly. There have even been a few occasions when I’ve caught two fish at once! But usually I’m searching and I’m trying to provide the fish with options. I’ll most often have two different fly patterns.
Keep in mind that (most of the time) your lowest fly on the rig will be fished near the bottom while the higher fly will be fished more in the middle column. I try to select and position flies with that in mind. For example, it’s far less likely to find a stonefly in the middle of the water column. They’re going to be found near the stream bottom. So logically, I want my stonefly nymph to be the bottom fly of my two fly rig. On the other hand, an emerging mayfly is more likely to be found in the middle feeding column. So, a soft hackle wet fly would probably be most effective as the top fly on my nymph rig.
You can rig like this with totally different flies or stay in the same “family.” If you’re in the middle of or expecting, say, a caddis hatch, you may rig with a caddis emerger as your top fly and a caddis larva as your bottom fly. I’ve also had a lot of success choosing one nymph to act purely as an attractor. I may tie on a larger or brighter nymph as my top fly and a smaller or subtler nymph as my bottom one. Very often, the brighter or bigger nymph gets their attention, but they eat the subtler nymph below it. I tend to fish the nymphs a little closer together in these situations.
You can rig a pair of nymphs the same way we mentioned above. Tie one directly off the hook bend of the other. This is referred to as the in-line method. This is probably the easiest way to rig and fish two nymphs. But some don’t like this method because they don’t think it allows the top fly to drift freely.
A common way to rig two nymphs that will allow the top fly to drift more freely, is to use a blood knot to attach a section of tippet to the end of your leader. When tying the knot, take care to leave one long tag end, to which you will tie the top fly. The bottom fly will be attached to the end of the new tippet section. This definitely allows the top fly to have more movement and it puts you in more direct contact with both nymphs. Though for me, this method results in a lot more tangles so I only use it for specific scenarios.
You can also rig quite similarly using a tippet ring (discussed in another article in this newsletter). With a tippet ring attached to the end of your leader, you tie one shorter piece of tippet to the ring, to which you will tie your top fly. And you tie a separate, longer piece of tippet to the ring, to which you’ll tie your bottom fly. This is a pretty simple way to do things but will also likely result in a few more tangles than the in-line method.
These are just examples of a few of the more common methods for fishing and rigging multiple flies. Play around with it and find what combos and techniques work best for you. Never be afraid to experiment!